According to Silverspurcorp.com, the process of manufacturing glass bottles are basically as follows:


bottle_making.jpg
Bottle Making, Molding Process
[1]

START OF MANUFACTURING:

Raw Material:
1. Composition / Lot

2. Moisture / Lot

3. Grain / Lot


Melting:
1. Component / 2 Weeks

2. Sp. Wt / Day


Forming:
1. Go-No-Go Gauge Detect / Hour

2. Appearance / Hour

3. Weight / Hr


Annealing:
1. Hot End Coating Detect / Shift

2.Go-No-Go Gauge Detect / Hour

3. Blister & Inclusion Count / Hour

4. Appearance / Hour

5. Seed Count / Shift

6. Strain / 2 Hours

7. Weight / 2 Hours

8. Leaner / 2 Hours

9. Internal Pressure Test / 2 or 4 Hours

10. Thermal Shock Test / Shift

11. Impact Test

- Pass / 2 Shifts

- Destroy / Day

12. Vertical Load Test / 2 Shifts

13. Thickness Measure / 4 Hours


Physical Inspection:
1. Appearance

2. Out of Shape Bottle


CIM:
(Dual Head Guage and Check Detector)

1. Internal Rim Diameter

2. External Rim Diameter

3. Wave

4. Unfilled Finish

5. Check Detect : Finish, Thread, Shoulder,

Body, Heel, Bottom.


MCAL:
(Side Wall and Dimension Inspector)

1. Birdswing

2. Inclusion

3. Oil Spot

4. Blister


CSBC:
(Finish Inspector)

1. Line Over

2. Finish Blister

3. Finish Oil Spot

4. Unfilled Finish


Physical Inspection:
1. Appearance

2. Out of Shape Bottle


Q.C. :
Final Inspect / Hour


Packing[2]
Making glass bottles requires two things:

  • Raw Materials
  • Batch calculations

Batch

A batch is a mixture of unmelted raw materials. They form melts when heated and melted. When the melts are cooled down, they form glass.

The usual estimated ratio of raw materials for a batch can be a combination of as follows:

SiO 2 70.77% 72.5%
Al 2 O 3 10% 1.2%
Na 2 O 13.75% 14.1%
CaO 11.0% 7.2%
MgO 3.04% 4.8%

Various oxides 0.34% 0.2% [3]

or

SiO2 73.80 %
Al2O3 15.22 %
CaO 0.90 %
MgO 0.10 %
Na2O 4.30 %
K2O 4.20 %
TiO2 0.09 %
Fe2O3 0.48%
others 0.50 %[4]







Raw Materials


The raw materials used for making glass bottles are basically a combination of:
  • Feldspars (albite: Na2O; anorthite: CaO; aplite:
    R2O/RO)
  • Borax (borosilicate glasses)
  • Dolomite
  • Limestone
  • Nepheline
  • Kyanite (aluminosilicate fiber glasses)
  • Sand
  • Soda ash
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Sodium carbonate
  • Recycled glass (Cullet)[5]
  • Sulfur together with carbon and iron salts (Iron polysulfides for amber color)[6]

There are five types of batch components. These are:
  1. Glass forming oxides.
  2. Fluxes
  3. Property modifiers
  4. Colorants
  5. Fining agents

Glass Forming Oxides

This is the dominant ingredient in making glass. It usually consists of elements like Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Boron Trioxide (B2O3), Phosphorus Pentoxide (P2O5), etc.

Fluxes

Fluxes reduce the melting temperatures. Fluxes are usually the elements Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Metal (PbO), Potassium Oxide (K2O), Lithium Oxide (Li2O), etc. Its base is usually consisted of Al2O3--SiO2, Al2O3--SiO2--Na2O and Al2O3--SiO2---K2O systems. Basically the ratio for this is Al2O3----SiO2---Na2O---K2O, 97.50 % by weight. The melting temperature resulting from the combination would be quite low at -1100 -1150 oC from the normal 1600 oC.

Property Modifiers

Property modifiers are added to tailor chemical durability, expansion, viscosity, etc. The property modifiers are usually Calcium Oxide (Cao), Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), etc.

Colorants

Colorants are used to tint the glass with different colors from clear, to green, to blue, or in the case of medicine bottles, the glass is tinted to an amber hue.
  1. ^ Bottle making moling process. (2006). [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.wisedude.com/science_engineering/bottles.htm
  2. ^ Glass bottles production and manufacturing. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.silverspurcorp.com/company/articles/glass_bottles_production_manufacturing.html
  3. ^ Pons, A. (1977, June 7). Raw materials for glass making ang method of making them. Retrieved from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4028131.html
  4. ^ Protasova, D.G., Kosenko, V.G., & Vlasova, S.G. (1993, August). Use of Local raw materials in the glass industry. Retrieved from http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=jq482480083q1q25&size=largest
  5. ^ Shelby, Initials. (n.d.). Glass making. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:kzsO8p0DIkAJ:web.mst.edu/~brow/PDF_glassmaking.pdf+glass+manufacturing+raw+materials&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESh2BAXe1m4tKQAMagRcOuogwXzBkJWNeDZ8LlXGR5Q-AziY4wSPq1Vd3vKzW0-tSMiGD1q2QYtF-Rb6-zvZh5sDPcAiBF6YNqWKrX0K0OfwEPK_SqA7TvFebaeVtqVdcmsQHuzE&sig=AHIEtbQ0VY1W2hv2A5W0Ayz_nuScqnuUhA
  6. ^ Glass. (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved (2010, March 1) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass