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Saturday, August 3

  1. page About Us edited ... You may also join our Skype group chat. Just send any of us a wikispace message for your Skype…
    ...
    You may also join our Skype group chat. Just send any of us a wikispace message for your Skype username. We hope you can share what you know!
    Our Inspiration
    {MARAMBA.jpg} We
    We
    chose “Nelia
    ...
    Medical Observer. .
    .

    It was during the Japanese Occupation when Dr. Nelia Maramba, a staunch advocate of herbal medicine, was first awed by the healing powers of plants. When a doctor failed to relieve her sister from a severe case of edema and infection, Nelia's grandfather administered homemade remedies, based on a book handed down by his grandfather, a pharmacologist from China. He cultivated penicillum notatum on a piece of bread, applied it directly to the infected area of the leg, and six hours later, the abscess disappeared like "magic," to the delight of the five-year-old Nelia. To treat the edema, she and her family ground and boiled cogon roots. Her ailing sister drank the liquid tonic for five days, before she was completely healed.
    Years later, astounded by the bloated cost of primary health care, Maramba proposed a scientific investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments practiced by traditional healers, the arbularyo. The medical community reacted with scorn. A colleague even mockingly tied a handkerchief around her forehead in the manner worn by the lowly arbularyo. But she was unfazed.
    ...
    (3) a hexagon is said to be nature’s perfect shape, reflecting stability. It is found in a beehive honeycomb, a turtle’s carapace, the micrograph of a snowflake, and the benzene ring.
    Our Top Contributors
    ...
    days="60" imageSize="small" showUsername="true" ]]showUsername="true"]]
    Our Teammates
    UPOU name
    ...
    roysb
    02
    Mahahleel Ricarze
    Mahahleel
    MRicarze
    03
    Jose Dante (Dave) Albao, Jr.
    (view changes)
    9:48 pm

Thursday, March 11

  1. page Foil Pack edited {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg} {http://www.azom.com/work/C…

    {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg}
    {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg} Image taken
    THE ALUMINIUM FOILS
    The aluminium foils used in the packaging of the Lagundi tablets are taken from the earth's crust and follow the processes shown above. Generally the technologies are described below:
    (view changes)
    11:47 pm
  2. page Foil Pack edited {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg} {http://www.azom.com/work/…
    {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg}
    {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg} Image taken from http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg
    THE ALUMINIUM FOILS
    The aluminium foils used in the packaging of the Lagundi tablets are taken from the earth's crust and follow the processes shown above. Generally the technologies are described below:

    Bauxite mining - Bauxite ore is mined from different areas of the world. Among the areas where bauxite is extracted are Australia, Central and South America (Jamaica, Brazil, Surinam, Venezuela and Guyana), Africa (Guinea), Asia (India, China), CIS and parts of Europe (Greece and Hungary).
    Alumina Production - the raw material for primary aluminium production is alumina (aluminium oxide) which is extracted from bauxite. The website www.azom.com described the extraction process as follows: "Bauxite has to be processed into pure aluminium oxide (alumina) before it can be converted to aluminium by electrolysis. This is achieved through the use of the Bayer chemical process in alumina refineries. The aluminium oxide is released from the other substances in bauxite in a caustic soda solution, which is filtered to remove all insoluble particles. The aluminium hydroxide is then precipitated from the soda solution, washed and dried while the soda solution is recycled. After calcination, the end-product, aluminium oxide (Al2O3), is a fine grained white powder."
    ...
    The term extrusion is usually applied to both the process, and the product obtained, when a hot cylindrical billet of aluminium is pushed through a shaped die. The resulting section can be used in long lengths or cut into short parts for use in structures, vehicles or components. Also, extrusions are used for the starting stock for drawn rod, cold extruded and forged products.
    Product Manufacture - Aluminium is then formed into products. The aluminium unique combination of properties has enabled designers and manufacturers to develop products that enhance the quality of life. Many applications in transportation, medicine, food preservation and electricity distribution would not have been possible if a material with aluminium’s high strength-to-weight characteristic, outstanding barrier properties, good conductivity and corrosion resistance had not been available.
    References:
    Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys - Life Cycle of Aluminium - http://www.azom.com/Details.asp?ArticleID=3529

    (view changes)
    11:44 pm
  3. page Wiki 2 edited ... 2. Wood chipping Mechanical pulping 3. Pulp production Mechanical and chemical Chemic…
    ...
    2.
    Wood chipping
    Mechanical pulping
    3.
    Pulp production
    Mechanical and chemicalChemical pulping
    4.
    Crude Paper sheets
    (view changes)
    11:35 pm
  4. page Wiki 2 edited ... Garbling - the lagundi leaves are separated by hand from other parts of the plants as well as …
    ...
    Garbling - the lagundi leaves are separated by hand from other parts of the plants as well as other particles and contaminants.
    Delivery to the milling site for processing - the lagundi leaves are then put into boxes and delivered to milling sites for processing
    ...
    Aluminium foils {http://www.azom.com/work/C58Z456fioS0Fovf1py0_files/image003.jpg} Life cycle of Aluminium taken from www.azom.com
    The aluminium
    ...
    lagundi tablet starts from extraction of the ore from the earth's crust. Here is based on the process of production:
    Bauxite mining - Bauxite
    following processes and technologies:
    Process
    Technology
    1.
    Bauxite
    ore is mined from different areas of the world. Among the areas where bauxite is extracted are Australia, Central and South America (Jamaica, Brazil, Surinam, Venezuela and Guyana), Africa (Guinea), Asia (India, China), CIS and parts of Europe (Greece and Hungary).extraction
    Mining technology
    2.

    Alumina Production - the raw material for primary aluminium production is alumina (aluminium oxide) which is extracted from bauxite. The website www.azom.com described the extraction process as follows: "Bauxite has to be processed into pure aluminium oxide (alumina) before it can be converted to aluminium by electrolysis. This is achieved through the use of the Bayer
    Bayer
    chemical process in alumina refineries. The aluminium oxide is released from the other substances in bauxite in a caustic soda solution, which is filtered to remove all insoluble particles. The aluminium hydroxide is then precipitated from the soda solution, washed and dried while the soda solution is recycled. After calcination, the end-product, aluminium oxide (Al2O3), is a fine grained white powder."refineries
    3.

    Primary Aluminium Production through electrolysis, - Thisproduction
    Electrolysis
    4.
    Semi-fabrication
    Manufacturing
    5.
    Commercial alumimium product
    Manufacturing
    The
    process is again described by the website www.azom.com as follows: "Primary aluminium is produced in reduction plants (or "smelters"), where pure aluminium is extracted from alumina. The reduction of alumina into liquid aluminium is operated at around 950 degrees Celsius in a fluorinated bath under high intensity electrical current. This process takes place in electrolytic cells (or “pots”), where carbon cathodes form the bottomextraction of the pot and act as the negative electrode. Anodes (positive electrodes) are held at the top of the pot and are consumed during the process when they react with the oxygen coming from the alumina. At regular intervals, molten aluminium tapped from the potsalumimium foils is transported to the cast house where it is alloyedfurther discussed in holding furnaces by the addition of other metals (according to the user’s needs), cleaned of oxides and gases, and then cast into ingots."
    Semi-Fabrication - This encompasses several industrial processes: rolling, casting and extrusion . Azom describes the whole process:
    Rolled products, i.e. sheet, plate and foil constitute almost 50 % of all aluminium alloys used. In North America and Western Europe, the packaging industry consumes the majority of the sheet and foil for making beverage cans, foil containers and foil wrapping. Sheet is also used extensively in building for roofing and siding, in mass transport for airframes, road and rail vehicles, in marine applications, including offshore platforms, and superstructures and hulls of boats. Plate is used for airframes, military vehicles and bridges, ship superstructures, cryogenic and chemical vessels and as tooling plate for the production of plastic products.
    this sub-page: Foil applications outside packaging include electrical equipment, insulation for buildings, lithographic plate and foil for heat exchangers.
    Aluminium casting processes are classified as ingot casting or mould casting. During the first process, primary or aluminium is cast into rolling ingot (slab), extrusion ingot (billet) and wire bar ingot which are subsequently transformed in semi- and finished products. The second process is used in the foundries for producing cast products. This is the oldest and simplest mean of manufacturing shaped components. Aluminium castings are very powerful and versatile techniques for manufacturing semi- or finished products with intricate shapes. Those techniques are continuously improved and developed to satisfy the user needs and to penetrate new markets.
    The term extrusion is usually applied to both the process, and the product obtained, when a hot cylindrical billet of aluminium is pushed through a shaped die. The resulting section can be used in long lengths or cut into short parts for use in structures, vehicles or components. Also, extrusions are used for the starting stock for drawn rod, cold extruded and forged products.
    Product Manufacture - Aluminium is then formed into products. The aluminium unique combination of properties has enabled designers and manufacturers to develop products that enhance the quality of life. Many applications in transportation, medicine, food preservation and electricity distribution would not have been possible if a material with aluminium’s high strength-to-weight characteristic, outstanding barrier properties, good conductivity and corrosion resistance had not been available.
    Pack
    2.3 Packaging
    ...
    and paper {http://www.wipapercouncil.org/images/Process_and_Numbers_2.jpg} The paper making process. Image from http://www.wipapercouncil.org/process.htm
    The packaging
    ...
    and paper usually follow this process.
    Trees are cut down for wood - Trees may come from plantation forests
    is based on the following processes and technologies:
    Process
    Technologies
    1.
    Cutting
    of native forests. Trees can be either hardwoods, like eucalyptus trees, or soft woods, like pine trees
    Timber technology
    2.

    Wood is debarked and turned into wood chips
    Wood is turned into pulp which is further cleaned and refined. Pulp is made from woodchips which are made by breaking up the left over wood that can’t be used to make furniture or homes. There are two ways to make pulp from wood: (1) mechanically - the wood chips are crushed with water by rotating grindstones that physically tear the fibres apart. This process is used to make pulp for less strong paper products such as newsprint; (2) chemically – the wood chips are cooked under pressure in a digester with water and chemicals (e.g. sodium sulphite) which dissolve the material holding the fibres together. This used when you need strong paper.
    chipping
    3.

    Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screenproduction
    Mechanical
    and squeezed between rollers to remove water.chemical pulping
    4.
    Crude
    Paper is made in large factories called paper mills. In order to make paper, the wood pulp is washed, cleaned and sometimes it is bleached to make it white in colour. A beating machine turns the clean pulpsheets
    Paper milling
    5.
    Cutting
    into pulp slush which is pumped onto a moving wire screen. As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet is squeezed between large rollers to remove mostsheets
    Paper cutting
    The process
    of the remaining water and ensure the paper is smooth. The semi-dry paper is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.
    Dry paper is wound onto rollers
    and cut into sheets for use. The finished paperpackaging box extraction/production is then wound into large rolls, which can be 10 meters wide. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls,further discussed in this sub-page: Packaging Box and the paper is ready for use.Paper
    {production.jpg} 3. Production
    After the Lagundi leaves are produced in farms, they are transferred to the laboratories and factories to be tested for bacteria and to be made into tablets and syrups. The process presented is based on the interview with Pascual Laboratories.
    ...
    PITAHC. (n.d.) Herbal Processing Plants. Retrieved on January 30, 2010 from
    http://www2.doh.gov.ph/pitahc/Herbal_Processing_Plants.html
    The A to Z of Materials. (n.d). Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys - Life Cycle of Aluminium. Retrieved on January 20, 2010 from http://www.azom.com/Details.asp?ArticleID=3529
    Julie Callope. "PCHRD To Showcase Health Technologies at OSIST Launching"
    Saturday, 27 September 2008
    (view changes)
    11:34 pm

Sunday, March 7

Wednesday, March 3

  1. page Packaging Box and Paper edited ... Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper i…
    ...
    Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper is made in large factories called paper mills. In order to make paper, the wood pulp is washed, cleaned and sometimes it is bleached to make it white in colour. A beating machine turns the clean pulp into pulp slush which is pumped onto a moving wire screen. As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet is squeezed between large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure the paper is smooth. The semi-dry paper is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.
    Dry paper is wound onto rollers and cut into sheets for use. The finished paper is then wound into large rolls, which can be 10 meters wide. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls, and the paper is ready for use.
    Life cycle of Aluminium taken from www.azom.com
    (view changes)
    7:00 am
  2. file Details.asp.htm uploaded
    6:52 am
  3. page Packaging Box and Paper edited ... Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper i…
    ...
    Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper is made in large factories called paper mills. In order to make paper, the wood pulp is washed, cleaned and sometimes it is bleached to make it white in colour. A beating machine turns the clean pulp into pulp slush which is pumped onto a moving wire screen. As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet is squeezed between large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure the paper is smooth. The semi-dry paper is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.
    Dry paper is wound onto rollers and cut into sheets for use. The finished paper is then wound into large rolls, which can be 10 meters wide. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls, and the paper is ready for use.
    code
    <td class="imageCaption"> Life
    Life cycle of
    ...
    taken from www.azom.com</td>
    code
    www.azom.com
    (view changes)
    6:48 am
  4. page Packaging Box and Paper edited ... Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper i…
    ...
    Pulp is pumped onto a moving wire screen and squeezed between rollers to remove water. Paper is made in large factories called paper mills. In order to make paper, the wood pulp is washed, cleaned and sometimes it is bleached to make it white in colour. A beating machine turns the clean pulp into pulp slush which is pumped onto a moving wire screen. As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet is squeezed between large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure the paper is smooth. The semi-dry paper is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.
    Dry paper is wound onto rollers and cut into sheets for use. The finished paper is then wound into large rolls, which can be 10 meters wide. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls, and the paper is ready for use.
    code
    <td class="imageCaption"> Life cycle of Aluminium taken from www.azom.com</td>
    code

    (view changes)
    6:48 am

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